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亚博App_人类为什么能成为地球上最厉害的长跑健将
亚博App_人类为什么能成为地球上最厉害的长跑健将
亚博App_人类为什么能成为地球上最厉害的长跑健将
亚博App_人类为什么能成为地球上最厉害的长跑健将 首页 > 实木拼板
本文摘要:Each year, a small town in Wales holds the Man Versus Horse Marathon. Its a 22-mile race between riders on horseback and runners. And, while horses often win, humans will sometimes prevail.巴拿马的一个小鎮每一年都是会举办“人军马队长跑比赛”,由骑着马者和跑步者协同参与,赛程安排大概为35千米。

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Each year, a small town in Wales holds the Man Versus Horse Marathon. Its a 22-mile race between riders on horseback and runners. And, while horses often win, humans will sometimes prevail.巴拿马的一个小鎮每一年都是会举办“人军马队长跑比赛”,由骑着马者和跑步者协同参与,赛程安排大概为35千米。尽管骑着马者常常败北,但人类有时候也可以取得胜利。So what makes humans such endurance running superstars?那麼,人类为何能沦落长跑运动健将呢?The secret weapon is our sweat. We have 2-4 million sweat glands all over our body, which means we can run and cool ourselves at the same time. Having no fur is also a huge plus.我们的秘密武器装备是汗水。

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人类全身上下覆盖范围着二百万至400万个皮脂腺——换句话说,大家必须一旁跑步一旁减温。此外,没毛皮也是诸多优点。In contrast, dogs rely on panting to cool down, and other animals, like horses and camels, also sweat, but less effectively. As a result, they overheat faster and must slow down sooner.相互之间较来讲,狗要靠气喘减温;马、大象等别的小动物尽管也出汗,但减温实际效果比不上人类。因而,他们的人体体温不容易变慢短路故障,务必尽早滑跑。

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The mechanics of our running stride also makes us particularly well-suited for endurance running. A humans running gait has two main phases: Aerial when both feet are off the ground and Stance when at least one foot touches the ground.此外,人类的跑步步骤也使大家十分适合长跑。人类跑步的体态有二步——腾空:两脚皆离地;两脚:至少一只脚碰地。While in the air, gravity pulls us down, which generates a lot of kinetic energy. However, the second we hit the ground, we instantly decelerate, losing that kinetic energy in the process.腾空时,作用力不容易把大家拉下去,这一全过程造成了很多动能。

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但是,碰地的时候会立刻滑跑,缺失这类动能。Heres where our special adaptations come in. The tendons and muscles in our legs are very springy. They act like a pogo stick, converting kinetic energy from the aerial phase into elastic potential energy, which we can use later.而人类特有的适应能力就体现在这儿。大家的大腿根部筋腱和全身肌肉具有弹性,他们能够像弹跳器一样将动能转换变成弹性势能,以供以后运用。

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In fact, our IT band can store 15-20 times more elastic energy than a chimpanzees similar body part, the fascia lata. When it comes time to step off, those springy tendons can turn 50% of that elastic pogo-stick energy back into kinetic, making it easier to propel forward. Without that extra energy, wed have to exert that much more effort just to take a step.实际上,人类的髂胫束(包绕大腿根部的浅筋膜)必须存储的弹性势能是大猩猩的相仿位置宽肌肉筋膜的15-20倍。在我们迈开时,富有延展性的肌腱能够将50%的弹性势能转换变成动能,使大家更非常容易行驶。假如没这类附加动能,那麼大家务必成本更为多期待,才必须前更进一步。So, why did humans get to be such great endurance runners, anyway?那麼,人类为什么能沦落这般非凡的长跑运动健将呢?Some anthropologists believe this became important around 2-3 million years ago, when we started hunting and scavenging. Because we couldnt chase down a gazelle like a cheetah, early humans learned persistence hunting. Where they would track prey over long distances until the prey either overheated or was driven into a trap.一些人类学者强调,约在两三百史前,当人类刚开始捕猎和觅食时,长跑工作能力看起来尤为重要。

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由于人类没法像猎豹一样袭击羚羊羚羊,因此大家学会了体力捕猎。她们不容易追踪猎食较长一段距离,直至他们人体体温短路故障或被逼入圈套。

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In fact, persistence hunting remained in use until 2014, such as with the San people of the Kalahari Desert.实际上,来到二十一世纪,依然有人类在用以这类捕猎方式,比如,喀拉奥兹荒漠的非州土著居民桑人。But distance running can still help you, even if youre not interested in running down your next meal.就算你如今对追猎觅食沒有兴趣爱好,但长跑依然有利人体。Studies show running can lower body weight, body fat, and cholesterol levels. And the longer you train, the greater the health benefits. Just one year of training has been shown to reduce body weight by about 7 lbs, lower body fat by 2.7% and decrease resting heart rate by 2.7%.研究表明,跑步必须减少休重、体脂率和碳水化合物水准。

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跑步時间越长,身心健康好处就越明显。一年的长跑训炼必须使休重减少大概3公斤,体脂率减少2.7%,静息心率减少2.7%。

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